A recent study by researchers at Tulane University looked at 60 beverages commercially available throughout the US purchased in New Orleans, LA. They analyzed the contents of single and mixed-fruit juices, plant-based milks, sodas, and teas to determine their content of 25 toxic metals and trace elements.
According to their findings published in the Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, five beverages contained levels of toxic metals that exceeded federal drinking water standards.
Mixed-fruit juices and plant-based milks (such as oat and almond) contained elevated concentrations of toxic metals more often than other drinks. Two of the mixed-fruit juices had levels of arsenic above the 10µg/L standard and a cranberry juice, a mixed carrot and fruit juice, and an oat milk each had levels of cadmium exceeding the three parts per billion standard.
Seven of the 25 elements exceeded drinking water standards in some drinks, including nickel, manganese, boron, cadmium, strontium, arsenic, and selenium. While lead was detected in more than 93% of the 60 samples, most contained very low levels, below 1 part per billion. The highest level (6.3 micrograms/kg ) was found in a lime sports drink, though the concentration falls below both EPA and WHO standards for drinking water.
Tewodros Godebo, lead author and assistant professor of environmental health sciences at Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, said the study was important because there are few peer-reviewed studies examining the contents of American beverages.
“It was surprising that there aren’t a lot of studies out there concerning toxic and essential elements in soft drinks in the United States,” Godebo said. “This creates awareness that there needs to be more study.”
Soft drinks are often consumed in smaller quantities than water, meaning the health risks for adults are most likely low. But Godebo said parents should be cautious about what drinks they offer their children.
“People should avoid giving infants and young children mixed-fruit juices or plant-based milks at high volume,” Godebo said. “Arsenic, lead and cadmium are known carcinogens and well established to cause internal organ damage and cognitive harm in children, especially during early brain development.”
Godebo said most of these elements found in beverages presumably come from contaminated soil.
Tulane student Hannah Stoner who participated in the study, said: “I don’t think there needs to be fear. In toxicity, it’s the dosage that often makes the difference so everything in moderation. But this creates awareness that there needs to be more study.”
Godebo said the next step is to conduct a risk assessment based on the data collected to see the impacts of consuming toxic metals in children and adults.
“We are curious to keep exploring what’s in our drinks and foods commercially sold to the consumers,” Godebo said.
- Study finds elevated levels of toxic metals in some mixed-fruit juices and soft drinks — Tulane Press Release
- Toxic metals and essential elements contents in commercially available fruit juices and other non-alcoholic beverages from the United States — Journal of Food Composition and Analysis