A study by researchers of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), may shed light on why women suffer more frequent and more severe instances of anaphylaxis than men.
Anaphylaxis – a life threatening allergic reaction triggered by foods, medication, and animal stings and bites – occurs when immune cells release enzymes that cause tissues to swell and blood vessels to widen. Clinical studies have shown that women experience anaphylaxis more often than men, though the mechanism for this has not been clearly understood.
NIAID researchers found that female mice experienced more severe and longer lasting anaphylactic reactions than males. They discovered that Estradiol – a type of estrogen – enhances the effect of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that causes a number of symptoms of anaphylaxis.
Allergic Living’s site features an exclusive interview with Dr Helen Brough, lead author of a British study showing an association between high levels of peanut residue in homes, genetic factors for eczema, and increased incidence of peanut allergy.
The study examined peanut residue by vacuuming the sofas in 577 UK homes with babies in the first year of life. These children were later revisited at 8 and 11 years old and tested for peanut allergy along with a mutation in their genes associated with eczema. The results showed that children with the mutation were 3 times as likely to develop peanut allergy in homes with 3 times the quantity of peanut residue found in the household dust.
Children suffering food-induced anaphylaxis (FIA) were less than half as likely to need hospitalization if they received epinephrine prior to visiting the hospital emergency department. This was the finding of a study published in September in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice.
The study, conducted at Hasbro Children’s Hospital/Rhode Island Hospital, reviewed the charts of 384 emergency department visits for FIA during a six year period beginning January 1, 2004. Of these, 234 (61%) received treatment with epinephrine prior to the visit (the “early” receivers of epinephrine.)
A study presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI), asserts that individuals who have outgrown a food allergy may be at risk of developing eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) to the same food.
“EoE is characterized by the presence of large numbers of white blood cells called eosinophils in the tissue of the esophagus, which causes inflammation or swelling of the esophagus,” said Jonathan M. Spergel, MD, PhD, FAAAAI, one of the study authors. “Foods like dairy products, egg, soy and wheat are main causes of EoE.”
On December 5, federal legislation sponsored by Rep Matt Cartwright (D-PA) was introduced in Congress and assigned to the House Committee on Education and the Workforce.
The Alerting Local Leaders and Ensuring Responsible Guidelines for Youth Act (ALLERGY Act), if enacted, would mandate schools develop programs to address the bullying of children with food allergies. According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics, “31.5% of the children and 24.7% of the parents reported bullying specifically due to FA [food allergy], frequently including threats with foods, primarily by classmates.” The study was based on 251 respondents to a survey of families of children with food allergies.
According to US News and World Report, a study presented this week at a meeting of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) described the case of a boy who was cured of his peanut allergy after a bone marrow transplant.
A pilot study conducted at Boston Children’s Hospital Division of Allergy and Immunology and Harvard Medical School shows promise that treatment combining the asthma drug Xolair® with oral desensitization therapy facilitates rapid desensitization in children with severe peanut allergies.
The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI), followed 8 boys and 5 girls aged 8-16 years with histories of significant allergic reactions to peanuts.
Recently published research in Science Translational Medicine shows that defective genes known to play a role in connective tissue disorders also plays a significant role in the development of allergies.
FARE reports that the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have issued a consensus report on the current state of allergen immunotherapy (AIT).
A study published in the February issue of the Journal Allergy concludes that high levels of vitamin D in the blood of expectant mothers correlated with increased incidence of food allergy in their children.
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